Top Programming Languages for Engineers, Scientist and Researchers 2020

We always have to update ourselves with time for better career and future, therefore why not to do smart work for, both, high salary and easy life with a little effort everyday. According to my personal experience, with this little effort, if we make it everyday, we will be burden free in our life. Likewise if you want to be a data scientist, please, don’t stop yourself with only one language otherwise it’s hard to get a good job, probably you require to know 3-4 languages based on data science.

Similarly, it is applicable to everyone, doesn’t matter you want to be a data scientist or an IoT engineer, if you want a good job you need to learn atleast 3-4 languages based on your application area.

I did alot of research online on different languages for engineers, scientists and data science and now I am going to share with you. Maybe it will be helpful to select suitable languages according to your need.

I’ve found hundreds of languages, but I am sharing only those languages which can help you in your career growth and your personal growth as well. Today is a time of IoT, data science, automation, digital twin, so I am going to discuss top languages of 2020, which can help to grow your career.

Open source means anyone can use it for free, no need to buy
Difference between Interpreter and Compiled Language -The interpreter executes the program directly, translating each statement into a sequence of one or more subroutines, and then into another language. Compiled languages are converted directly into machine code so as a result, it is faster and more efficient to execute than interpreted languages.
A high level language means an easy-to-use and user friendly language.


It is an open source, interpreter, general purpose, high level language

About Python

Python is a widely used language. It is designed initially by Guido Van Rossum in 1991 and developed in Python software foundation.

Python is one of those languages which can affirm to be both simple and powerful. Its high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting to connect existing components together.

The official website says
Programmers fall in love with Python because of the increased productivity it provides. Since there is no compilation step, the edit-test-debug cycle is incredibly fast. Debugging Python programs is easy: a bug or bad input will never cause a segmentation fault. Instead, when the interpreter discovers an error, it raises an exception.

Python has no own IDE to write codes, but additionally you can install IDEs as given below, some of which are free:
Python requires additional libraries to install, based on your applications and requirements.

Use Python for

  • Web deigning (Widely used now days)
  • Algorithm development
  • Standalone app designing
  • Data Science (Widely used)
  • Hardware interfacing
  • Education and commercially both
  • Science and Management
  • Database access, scientific computation and numerical analysis
  • Game designing
  • For more visit here

Pros- It is free and widely used software today, not only for data science and web designing but you can use python in other domains as well. Big community available for python. Python is used in educations, between researchers and industries. Light and portable.

Cons- It’s not easy for self learners, no IDE after installation, you have to use other resources as given above for IDE. For help you require to search online so often. To do scientific computing or data science, you need additional packages to install like Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib etc.



It is an interpreter, high level language dedicated to engineers and scientists


Cleve Moler a mathematician and computer programmer invented MATLAB in 1970s

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks and allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages.

It is the easiest and most rich computing environment for engineers and scientists and has own powerful IDE for coding and SIMULINK for model based designs. MATLAB has apps too if you don’t want to write code in some cases.

MATLAB language is very easy to understand, each and every function has its own documentation offline and online both. A big and huge community for engineers and community. Beginners can use MATLAB without any help from others, it has more than 100 inbuilt modules you don’t require to install additionally, you can interface modules with each other.

The official website says
MATLAB toolboxes offer professionally developed, rigorously tested, field-hardened, and fully documented functionality for scientific and engineering applications. Toolboxes are designed to work with each other, and they integrate with parallel computing
environments, GPUs, and automatic C code generation.

Use MATLAB for

  • Model Based Design
  • Data science with parallel processing
  • Hardware interfacing and embedded code generation
  • Standalone app designing
  • Physical modeling
  • Mechatronics and Robotics
  • Image and Vision
  • ADAS(Advance driver assistance systems)
  • Control System
  • Education and Commercially
  • Management and event based modeling
  • IoT and ThingSpeak
  • Web app hosting
  • For more information visit here

Pros – It is widely used software in education, researches and industries, strong inbuilt packages and apps, strong IDE, it has simulink which is incomparable with any software, strong documentation, beginners can use it easily too, IoT solution.

Cons – Not free, heavy software



It is an open source, interpreter, statistical and machine learning, high level language

About R

R is an implementation of the S programming language and was created by John Chambers in 1976.

R provides a wide variety of statistical analysis like linear and nonlinear modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering. Working examples of R are complex and not for beginners. However, R-Commander and R-Studio are available as a graphical user interface.

The official website says

R is an integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. It includes

  • an effective data handling and storage facility,
  • a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices,
  • a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis,
  • graphical facilities for data analysis and display either on-screen or on hardcopy, and
  • a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user-defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.

Use R for

  • Data Analysis and Analytics
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Machine Learning
  • Education and Commercially
  • For More information visit here

Pros – Light tool, open source, large variety of libraries for Statistical analysis.

Cons – only for Statistical and Machine Learning(Data Science)


It is an interpreter, graphical language.

About LabView

The graphical language is named G (not G-code). Originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986.

Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) is a system-design platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments.
LabVIEW is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation. Nowadays you can use LABView for algorithm developments on data.

The official website says

LabVIEW offers a graphical programming approach that helps you to visualize every aspect of your application, including hardware configuration, measurement data, and debugging. This visualization makes it simple to integrate measurement hardware from any vendor, represent complex logic on the diagram, develop data analysis algorithms, and design custom engineering user interfaces.

Use LabView for

  • Hardware Interfacing (Widely used)
  • Graphical way to design algorithms
  • Standalone applications development and deployment
  • Education and Industries

Pros – Easy to use for hardware interfacing, attractive and easy way to design GUI , you can do data analysis GUI way

Cons – Not many powerful tools for algorithm development and for researchers



It is an open source, compiled, general purpose, object-oriented, high level language

About Java

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform.

Java is a programming language and a computing platform for application development. It is one of the most used programming languages. It is Concurrent where you can execute many statements instead of sequentially executing it. It is  object-oriented programming language like C++. Independent programming language that follows the logic of “Write once, Run anywhere” i.e. a compiled code can run on all platforms which supports java.

The official website says
Java is at the heart of our digital lifestyle. It’s the platform for launching careers, exploring human-to-digital interfaces, architecting the world’s best applications, and unlocking innovation everywhere—from garages to global organizations.

Use Java for

  • Banking Applications
  • Enterprise Applications
  • Scientific Applications:
  • Big Data
  • Information Technology
  • Android application
  • Financial services
  • Stock market applications
  • Scientific and web applications
  • Software development

Pros – Open source, light, platform independent, compiled and fast

Cons – Low level programming in comparison of above mentioned languages, Java does not support unsigned int, unsigned char etc, Paid the commercial license.



C is a general-purpose programming language, it is high level as compared to assembly but low level as compared to above mentioned languages . It is a machine-independent, structured programming language which is used extensively in various applications.

About C

It was initially developed as a programming language to write an operating system. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie in the year 1972.

C is a compiled language. A compiler is a special tool that compiles the program and converts it into the object file which is machine readable. The good thing in C is that it requires low-level access to memory, a simple set of keywords, and clean style. These features make C language suitable for programmings of an operating system or various computer and embedded applications.

Use C for

  • Application design for any platform
  • Operating system design
  • Embedded systems
  • GUI
  • To create programming platforms
  • Web browsers
  • Game and animation developement
  • You can use C in lots of applications, you may say C is the mother of other languages

Pros:- Portable, built-in functions, building block for other languages.

Cons:- Difficult to debug , it is low level language as compared to above so difficult to understand.

Website:- (Wikipedia)

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